The University of Minnesota uses two grading systems: A-B-C-D-F and S-N. Students select the grading system option when they register. Many courses are offered only under A-F grading. Any changes in grading option must be made as an official registration change by deadlines established by the University, typically very near the beginning of the course.
All core and concentration courses must be taken A-F, with these exceptions:
- PA 5080 (offered S-N only)
- PA 8921 (student choice of A-F or S-N, in consultation with instructor)
- PA 8922 (student choice of A-F or S-N, in consultation with instructor)
- MPA students may take up to 6 credits S-N for use in their 14-credit self-designed concentration
Courses awarded a grade of C- or above (or S) may fulfill degree requirements.
The list below identifies the possible permanent grades.
Grades will be entered on a student's official transcript. Pluses and minuses for grades of A, B, C, or D are permitted, except for A+ and D-. S and N grades do not affect a GPA, but the credits from a course with grade of S will fulfill degree requirements if allowed by the program.
A = superior work
B = satisfactory graduate-level work
C = below Graduate School standards, but allowed
D = unsatisfactory work; no graduate credit
F = fail/no credit given
S = satisfactory (grade of S must be level of C- or above)
N = non-satisfactory/no credit given
V = audit/no credit given