The Center on Women and Public Policy creatied a new data set of candidates for the Minnesota state legislature from 1998 to 2008 that allowed us to test our hypotheses about gender differences in candidates’ paths to office. The data span the cycles when the number of female candidates increased most rapidly. It allowed us to systematically test our hypotheses about gender differences in candidates’ electoral experiences, paths to office, and experiences with political parties employing multivariate regression techniques.
The data set combines information from official government sources, newspaper coverage of campaigns and candidates, and a survey of legislative candidates. We collected data about each candidate, including their sex, age, party, electoral experience, and incumbency status, along with information about their campaigns, including their vote share and campaign spending. We matched these data with information about the legislative districts and their electoral context (partisan voting history, demographics, urban concentration, history of electing women, party endorsements). These data come from several sources. Using information provided by the Minnesota Campaign Finance and Public Disclosure Board, we have compiled a data set of every candidate running for the legislature in 2008. The demographic and political information about each district come from the U.S. Census and published sources such as Politics in Minnesota.
We also conducted a systematic survey the 528 candidates in 2006 to gather more in-depth information about their backgrounds, the effects of party involvement in their race, other factors that helped or hindered their candidacies, and their motivations for running for office. We supplement these data with information about the candidates’ background and party activity provided in newspaper coverage gathered through lexis-nexis searches.
Minnesota Research Shows Programs are Increasing Political Ambition among Women (Elect Women Magazine)
The Center on Women and Public Policy undertook a research project to document the effectiveness of programs designed to reduce or eliminate the gender gap in political ambition in Minnesota and nationally. While women have made significant in-roads in “pipeline” professions, the number of women candidates has not kept pace. In recent years, increases in women’s political representation have slowed and in some cases declined. Minnesota is near the top in the percentage of female state legislators at 35%, but still far from the 50+% of the population women represent. Over half of Minnesota’s county boards have no women members (Nelson 2007). And only 16% of members of congress are women (CAWP 2007).
Changing these statistics will not be easy. According to the Citizen Political Ambition Study (Fox and Lawless 2005)
Women are less likely than men to consider running for office.
Women are less likely than men to run for office.
Women are less likely than men to express an interest in running for office.
The research suggests that there is a significant gender gap in political ambition. While college age men and women are equally likely to be politically active, women are 40% less likely to imagine running for office (Fox and Lawless 2005). Minnesota programs, like the White House Project, Progressive Majority, the Minnesota Women Candidate Development Coalition and others, are attempting to reduce or remove this gender gap. Each of these programs takes a different approach to addressing the gap. This project provides high quality longitudinal and comparative data on the effectiveness of various programs designed to reduce the gender gap in political ambition.
During the summer of 2008, we implemented follow-up study protocols to collect longitudinal data about program effectiveness in Minnesota, Michigan and other states. Approximately 250 White House Project and Progressive Majority participants were surveyed to collect baseline and follow-up information. These data wereanalyzed using multivariate techniques to test our hypotheses about effective approaches to reducing the gender gap in political ambition.